Lately I came across the problem of running cron jobs in a docker based environment when we migrated wpvulndb.com to a docker based install. So how should we execute cron jobs when the application is running with docker or docker-compose?
You have two choices of running cron jobs with docker:
- Execute them on the host system with
docker runin your application container
- Create a separate cron enabled docker container
The first method may be the simplest for your needs. Just edit the crontab of your host system and execute single tasks in your application container. The jobs need to run as root on the host system or the user has to be to be in the
docker group - which is basically the same as running as root.
For example this was one of our cron jobs executed from the host inside the application container using
/bin/bash -c 'cd /opt/wpvulndb/ && docker-compose -f docker-compose.yml -f docker-compose.staging.yml -f docker-compose.prod.yml run -T --name cron_sitemap --rm cron bundle exec rake -s sitemap:refresh'"
cron container in this case was just another instance of the main application image. We could also execute
docker-compose exec (or
docker exec) to run the command in the main application container but we created a separate container so we do not interrupt any processes inside the main container.
But there is one simple problem with this setup:
Normally errors are written to stdout and the cron daemon keeps sending every output from the jobs to the email address specified in the
MAILTO environment variable. Sadly
docker-compose does NOT support a quiet/silent flag so the starting messages of the single containers are always printed out and interpreted as errors by the cron daemon.
Starting wpvulndb_redis Starting wpvulndb_db Starting wpvulndb_sidekiq Starting wpvulndb_web
This ended up with a lot of emails for every cron job although we are only interested in errors.
So my choice for running the cron jobs was directly inside an container. There are some blog posts and stack overflow comments about this topic out there but either they are really old or miss some important details.
One thing you find a lot on the internet is something like:
cron && tail -f /var/log/cron.log as the main docker command - This is bad
This command would execute cron and tails the log file so it will be visible with
docker logs. But there is an problem with this:
If the cron daemon fails after some time the docker container will continue to run because it tails the log file and does not monitor the cron process as it should be. The crash of crond will be undetected. So from outside the container it looks like your cron jobs are running - but they don’t. Only the tail of the log file is running, beeing monitored by docker and reported as UP.
You should try to only have one main process running inside the container so the docker engine can monitor the health of your containers and restart them if needed or notify you.
So how to run the cron daemon correctly?
Normally all docker base images are stripped down with no running processes (like the cron daemon) because of the one process concept mentioned above. In the alpine base image there is a cron daemon installed but you need to run it on your own.
The following Dockerfile creates a separate user and copies a new crontab file to the machine. When this container is run all logs will be available via
docker logs or
FROM alpine:latest LABEL maintainer="Christian Mehlmauer <[email protected]>" ENV APP_USER appuser RUN adduser -g "App User" -D $APP_USER COPY crontab /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$APP_USER RUN chmod 0600 /var/spool/cron/crontabs/$APP_USER ENTRYPOINT "crond" CMD ["-f", "-d", "8"]
0 2 * * * /bin/date
The cron daemon parameters in use are:
-f: The cron daemon will run in the foreground. This way docker is able to monitor the process.
-d 8: This instructs the daemon to log to stderr with the default log level 8. Without this flag messages are only written to syslog and you can’t access them via the
Using this method of cron involves monitoring the logs of the container using some kind of monitoring like a log management or send the output from the jobs itself as email.
The cron files on alpine Linux work like this:
This file contains every cronjob that should be executed by the root user.
If you have a look at the file it contains the following lines per default:
# do daily/weekly/monthly maintenance # min hour day month weekday command */15 * * * * run-parts /etc/periodic/15min 0 * * * * run-parts /etc/periodic/hourly 0 2 * * * run-parts /etc/periodic/daily 0 3 * * 6 run-parts /etc/periodic/weekly 0 5 1 * * run-parts /etc/periodic/monthly
This means you can also put your executable scripts inside one of these folders and they will be run by root automatically. If you put a bash script into
/etc/periodic/15min and make it executable the cron daemon will execute it every 15 minutes.
If you want your jobs to be executed at different times just add a line to this file using cron syntax.
ATTENTION: You MUST NOT use an extension on the files placed inside the
periodic folders. If you place a shell script inside just omit the extension and make sure it starts with the correct shebang
#!/bin/sh. See here for details: https://wiki.alpinelinux.org/wiki/Alpine_Linux:FAQ#My_cron_jobs_don.27t_run.3F
This file contains cronjobs that should be executed by the user matching the file name. This is handy if you want to run cron jobs as a different user. It’s a good habit to run jobs as a separate user if the job does not require root privileges to reduce the attack surface.
You can also integrate the steps mentioned above inside your main Dockerfile (if it’s based on an alpine based image) and change the entrypoint and command to the cron commands if you need access to the main application for the cron jobs.
For example our
docker-compose.yml file uses the following snippet on the main Dockerfile to use it as a cron container with a different entrypoint (the
user: root is important as the cron daemon needs to run as root):
entrypoint: "" user: root command: crond -f -d 8
Also be sure to mount your local timezone file into the container so the time inside matches your host system time and the jobs get executed at the correct time.
docker-compose use the following:
volumes: - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
In docker use the following command line option:
I hope this post gave a good overview on how to design your docker setup to also run cron jobs.